NGSI-LD HowTo

Introduction

The FIWARE NGSI v2 information model has been evolved to better support linked data (entity relationships), property graphs and semantics (exploiting the capabilities offered by JSON-LD). This work has been conducted under the ETSI ISG CIM initiative and has been branded as NGSI-LD. The main constructs of NGSI-LD are: Entity, Property and Relationship. NGSI-LD Entities (instances) can be the subject of Properties or Relationships. In terms of the traditional NGSI v2 data model, Properties can be seen as the combination of an attribute and its value. Relationships allow to establish associations between instances using linked data. In practice, they are conveyed by means of a special NGSI v2 attribute with a special value (relationship’s object), which happens to be a URI which points to another entity. They are similar to the ref attributes recommended by the Data Models guidelines.

Properties and Relationships can be the subject of other Properties or Relationships. Thus, in the NGSI-LD information model there are no attribute’s metadata, but just “properties of properties” or “properties of relationships”. It is not expected to have infinite graphs, and in practice, only one or two levels of Property or Relationship “chaining” will happen. Typically, there will be one, equivalent to the NGSI v2 metadata abstraction. NGSI-LD Entities are represented using JSON-LD, a JSON-based serialization format for Linked Data. The main advantage of JSON-LD is that it offers the capability of expanding JSON terms to URIs, so that vocabularies can be used to define terms unambiguously.

Steps to migrate to JSON-LD

First of all, each Data Model shall have a JSON-LD @context, providing an unambiguous definition by mapping terms to URIs. For practicality reasons, it is recommended to have a unique @context resource, containing all terms, subject to be used in every FIWARE Data Model, the same way as schema.org does. The following steps have to be followed in order to migrate existing NGSI v2 instantiations of the FIWARE Data Models to NGSI-LD:

  • NGSI v2 entity id attributes have to be converted to URIs, preferably using the NGSI-LD URN
  • Regular entity attributes have to be converted to JSON-LD nodes of type Property.
  • ref attributes (pointing to other entities) have to be converted to JSON-LD nodes of type Relationship.
  • The timestamp metadata item has to be mapped to the observedAt member of a Property node.
  • The unitCode metadata item has to be mapped to the unitCode member of a Property node.
  • The NGSI v2 DateTime type has to be properly encoded as per the JSON-LD rules.
  • The NGSI v2 geo:json type has to be renamed to GeoProperty.

The FIWARE Community has already provided a simple script to migrate FIWARE NGSI entity representations to NGSI-LD, see normalized2LD.py

Example of migration to NGSI-LD

The figure below shows how air quality information at a certain point of interest can be conveyed using the FIWARE Data Models (involving the entity types AirQualityObserved, PointOfInterest) in NGSI v2 format.

Airquality in NGSI v2 format

{
    "id": "AirQualityObserved:RZ:Obsv4567",
    "type": "AirQualityObserved",
    "dateObserved": {
        "type": "DateTime",
        "value": "2018-08-07T12:00:00"
    },
    "NO2": {
        "type": "Number",
        "value": 22,
        "metadata": {
            "unitCode": {
                "type": "Text",
                "value": "GP"
            }
        }
    },
    "refPointOfInterest": {
        "type": "Reference",
        "value": "PointOfInterest:RZ:MainSquare"
    }
}

PointOfInterest in NGSI v2 format

{
    "id": "PointOfInterest:RZ:MainSquare",
    "type": "PointOfInterest",
    "category": {
        "type": "List",
        "value": ["113"]
    },
    "description": {
        "type": "Text",
        "value": "Beach of RZ"
    },
    "location": {
        "type": "geo:json",
        "value": {
            "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [-8, 44]
        }
    }
}

The figure below shows how air quality information, at a certain point of interest, can be conveyed using the FIWARE Data Models (involving the entity types AirQualityObserved, PointOfInterest) in NGSI-LD format. The new representation has been obtained by applying the conversion rules described before. Please note that the referred JSON-LD @context could be eventually published by FIWARE at the suggested URL.

Airquality in NGSI-LD format

{
    "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:AirQualityObserved:RZ:Obsv4567",
    "type": "AirQualityObserved",
    "dateObserved": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": {
            "@type": "DateTime",
            "@value": "2018-08-07T12:00:00Z"
        }
    },
    "NO2": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": 22,
        "unitCode": "GP"
    },
    "refPointOfInterest": {
        "type": "Relationship",
        "object": "urn:ngsi-ld:PointOfInterest:RZ:MainSquare"
    },
    "@context": [
        "https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context",
        "http://uri.etsi.org/ngsi-ld/v1/ngsi-ld-core-context.jsonld"
    ]
}

PointOfInterest in NGSI-LD format

{
    "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:PointOfInterest:RZ:MainSquare ",
    "type": "PointOfInterest",
    "category": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": ["113"]
    },
    "description": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "Beach of RZ"
    },
    "location": {
        "type": "GeoProperty",
        "value": {
            "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [-8, 44]
        }
    },
    "@context": [
        "https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context",
        "http://uri.etsi.org/ngsi-ld/v1/ngsi-ld-core-context.jsonld"
    ]
}

The content of the JSON-LD @context would contain the mappings enumerated below, plus many others. Observe that refPointOfInterest is labelled as an @id, as it is actually pointing to another Entity (linked data). On the other hand, there are certain terms such as location or unitCode which are not included in the @context, as they pertain to the Core JSON-LD @context which is always implicit (and cannot be overwritten).

{
    "@context": {
        "dateObserved": "http://schema.fiware.org/dateObserved",
        "NO2": "http://schema.fiware.org/NO2",
        "refPointOfInterest": {
            "@type": "@id",
            "@id": "http://schema.fiware.org/refPointOfInterest"
        },
        "category": "http://schema.fiware.org/category",
        "description": "http://schema.org/description"
    }
}

API Examples

Entity Creation (application/ld+json)

Observe that the request MIME type is set to application/ld+json. The @context contains two parts: the ETSI Core @context and the FIWARE Data Models @context. The ETSI core @context part could have been omitted as it is always implicit (and cannot be overwritten).

Note: When using application/ld+json the payload must always contain a @context member.

curl -X GET \
  http://localhost:3000/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/ \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/ld+json' \
  -H 'Content-Length: 903' \
  -d '{
    "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3",
    "type": "ParkingSpot",
    "status": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "free",
        "observedAt": "2018-09-21T12:00:00Z"
    },
    "category": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": [
            "onstreet"
        ]
    },
    "refParkingSite": {
        "type": "Relationship",
        "object": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSite:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5"
    },
    "name": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "A-13"
    },
    "location": {
        "type": "GeoProperty",
        "value": {
            "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [
                -3.80356167695194,
                43.46296641666926
            ]
        }
    },
    "@context": [
        "https://uri.etsi.org/ngsi-ld/v1/ngsi-ld-core-context.jsonld",
        "https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context"
    ]
}'

Entity Creation (application/json)

In this case the payload should not contain any @context member, since the @context is conveyed as a Link header in the request. It is noteworthy, that only one Link header pointing to the JSON-LD @context is allowed. That's why only the FIWARE Data Models URI @context is provided as the target of a Link header. Remember that the ETSI Core @context is always implicit.

Note: If no Link header is provided the Entity members will be mapped to the Default @context which implies that they will be under the example.org/ngsi-ld namespace.

curl -X POST \
  http://localhost:3000/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/ \
  -H 'Link: <https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
  -H 'content-length: 884' \
  -d '{
        "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3",
        "type": "ParkingSpot",
        "status": {
            "type": "Property",
            "value": "free",
            "observedAt": "2018-09-21T12:00:00Z"
        },
        "category": {
            "type": "Property",
            "value": [
                "onstreet"
            ]
        },
        "refParkingSite": {
            "type": "Relationship",
            "object": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSite:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5"
        },
        "name": {
            "type": "Property",
            "value": "A-13"
        },
        "location": {
            "type": "GeoProperty",
            "value": {
                "type": "Point",
                "coordinates": [
                    -3.80356167695194,
                    43.46296641666926
                ]
            }
        }
    }'

Entity Retrieval (application/ld+json)

GET requests should always contain a Link header to the corresponding @context, so that the Broker can be informed of what is the @context of a query. In this case if a Link header had not been provided, the resulting JSON object would have contained long URIs as member keys, and not the short names that were used when creating the Entity.

Note: Remember that if no Link header is provided the default @context will be used. The default @context maps every JSON member to the http://example.org/ngsi-ld dummy namespace.

curl -X GET \
  http://localhost:3000/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3 \
  -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' \
  -H 'Link: <https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \

Response will contain what is shown below (headers and payload). Observe that this response does not include any Link header as it is indeed application/ld+json, and, therefore, the @context is already a payload member.

Content-Type: application/ld+json

{
    "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3",
    "type": "ParkingSpot",
    "status": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "free",
        "observedAt": "2018-09-21T12:00:00Z"
    },
    "category": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": [
            "onstreet"
        ]
    },
    "refParkingSite": {
        "type": "Relationship",
        "object": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSite:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5"
    },
    "name": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "A-13"
    },
    "location": {
        "type": "GeoProperty",
        "value": {
            "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [
                -3.80356167695194,
                43.46296641666926
            ]
        }
    },
    "@context": [
        "https://uri.etsi.org/ngsi-ld/v1/ngsi-ld-core-context.jsonld",
        "https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context"
    ]
}

Entity Retrieval (application/json)

GET requests should always contain a Link header to the corresponding @context, so that the Broker can be informed of what is the @context of a query. In this case if a Link header had not been provided the resulting JSON object would have contained long URIs as member keys and not the short names that were used when creating the Entity.

Note: If no Link header is provided the default @context will be used. Remember that the default @context maps every JSON member to the http://example.org/ngsi-ld dummy namespace.

curl -X GET \
  http://localhost:3000/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3 \
  -H 'Accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Link: <https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \

Response will contain what is shown below. Observe that this response does include the Link header, as it is application/json, and, therefore, the @context does not appear as a member of the JSON payload.

Content-Type: application/json
Link: <https://schema.lab.fiware.org/ld/context>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"

{
    "id": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSpot:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5:3",
    "type": "ParkingSpot",
    "status": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "free",
        "observedAt": "2018-09-21T12:00:00Z"
    },
    "category": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": [
            "onstreet"
        ]
    },
    "refParkingSite": {
        "type": "Relationship",
        "object": "urn:ngsi-ld:ParkingSite:santander:daoiz_velarde_1_5"
    },
    "name": {
        "type": "Property",
        "value": "A-13"
    },
    "location": {
        "type": "GeoProperty",
        "value": {
            "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [
                -3.80356167695194,
                43.46296641666926
            ]
        }
    }
}